Chess is a strategy board game that opposes two opponents, called Black and White by the color of the moving pieces. The term comes from the Occitan and Catalan escac, which in turn comes from Persian شاه, Shah, "king", perhaps through an Arabic adaptation eš-šāq, with the addition of the article and the transformation of the Persian fricative into occlusive . They play on a square table called the checkerboard, consisting of 64 boxes (these houses) of two alternating and contrasting colors, on which at the beginning there are thirty-six pieces, sixteen for each color: a king, a woman (also called a queen) Two aliens, two horses, two towers and eight pedestrians; The goal of the game is to give a crazy stick, or to attack the opponent king without having the chance to escape. Originating in India around the 6th century, chess came to Europe around the year 1000, probably due to the mediation of the Arabs; Spread throughout the continent, have reached a nearly modern form in the fifteenth century in Italy and Spain, while today's regulation has "frozen" in the nineteenth century. So since the middle of the eighteenth century, thanks to Paul Morphy and Wilhelm Steinitz, they began to codify the strategic fundamentals of the game; Steinitz himself will be proclaimed in 1886 after a challenge against Johannes Zukertort, the world's first champion, considered the most prestigious title for a chess player. The champion in charge is Magnus Carlsen, who won the title in the 2013 World Championship and defended him in the following year, in both cases beating his predecessor Viswanathan Anand. Chess is one of the most popular games in the world: they can be played at home, in dedicated circles, via the internet or by correspondence, both recreational and competitive. Chess is also a sport recognized by the International Olympic Committee and official competitions are organized under the aegis of the FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), founded in 1924. #chess
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