Temple of Light is the only known Sage related temple that is not located in Hyrule. Instead, it lies in the Sacred Realm. It seems to be closely linked to the Temple of Time, as the latter holds the only known entrance into the Sacred Realm. This might be why the Prelude of Light warps Link to the Temple of Time instead of the Temple of Light. It was the resting place of the Triforce before Ganon stole it. The Temple of Light only appeared in Ocarina of Time, and only one of its chambers is visited: the Chamber of Sages where the Sages meet. As the Chamber also appears within the Pyramid in A Link to the Past, and the Pyramid is shown in the background story for the Golden Land, it may be assumed that the the Pyramid is in fact the Light Temple.
Though Link in Ocarina of Time is not able to visit the Temple of Light on his own, he is often warped to the Chamber of Sages. The first time was when he took the Master Sword from the Pedestal of Time and opened the gate to the Sacred Realm. Rauru, the Sage of Light at that time, kept him in suspended animation within the Temple of Light until Link would be old enough to become the Hero of Time. After that, every time Link awakened a Sage, he and the Sage were teleported to the Chamber of Sages where they had a small chat and Link was given the corresponding Sage Medallions before he was teleported to Hyrule again.